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中美城市生活垃圾焚烧处置现状和发展趋势
发布时间:2017.08.19  浏览次数:
 
中美城市生活垃圾焚烧处置现状和发展趋势
摘要:城市生活垃圾管理和处置是当前各国政府面临的共同挑战。为了解中国和美国垃圾焚烧处置现状和发展趋势,对两国垃圾产量、处置技术结构,焚烧技术应用、焚烧过程二恶英排放进行了调查和比较研究。按照美国经济水平,中国垃圾产量将达5亿吨,需加强垃圾无害化处置能力建设,尤其垃圾分类和综合利用。中国垃圾焚烧技术将得到更大地推广,需更严格控制二恶英排放,实现低于0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3。通过焚烧实现垃圾能源化利用,具有碳减排效果,中国垃圾焚烧碳减排量约为102万吨。

双色球斜连走势图 GUANJIANCI:SHENGHUOLAJI、FENSHAO、EREYINGPAIFANG、TANJIANPAI

CHENGSHISHENGHUOLAJIWUHAIHUACHUZHIHEZIYUANHUALIYONGSHIGEGUOZHENGFUMIANLINDEGONGTONGTIAOZHAN,YESHISHIXIANXUNHUANJINGJIDEGUANJIAN。WEIZHENGQUELEJIEZHONGGUOHEMEIGUOZAILAJICHUZHI,YOUQISHIFENSHAOCHUZHIJISHUYINGYONGXIANZHUANGHEFAZHANQUSHI,BENWENDUILIANGGUOLAJICHANLIANG、LAJICHUZHIJISHUGEJU、FENSHAOCHUZHIJISHUYINGYONG、FENSHAOGUOCHENGEREYINGPAIFANGJITANJIANPAIXIAOGUOJINXINGLESHENRUDIAOCHAHEJISUAN。

1、LAJICHANLIANG

双色球斜连走势图 TU1XIANSHILEZHONGGUOHEMEIGUOLAJICHANLIANGDEBIANHUA,CONGTUZHONGDEDAO1990~2005NIANZHONGGUOHEMEIGUOSHENGHUOLAJIDEZENGZHANGXIANZHU。1990NIANMEIGUOLAJICHANLIANGWEI20830WANDUN,DAN2005NIANZENGJIADAO25270WANDUN,ZENGJIALE21.3%;ZHONGGUOLAJICHANLIANGYECONG6767WANDUNZENGJIADAOLE15576WANDUN,ZENGZHANGLVWEI130%。2006NIANHOU,ZHONGMEISHENGHUOLAJIZENGZHANGLIANGJUNBUMINGXIAN,MEIGUOSHENGHUOLAJICHANLIANGCHUXIANLEYIGEWUGUILVDEBODONG,ZHONGGUOXIAOFUZENGZHANG(6.5%)。2010NIANMEIGUOLAJICHANLIANGWEI2.50YIDUN,ZHONGGUOWEI1.58YIDUN,MEIGUOSHIZHONGGUODE1.58BEI。TONGSHI2010NIANMEIGUORENJUNLAJICHANLIANGWEI2.01 kg/(REN·RI),ZHONGGUOCHENGSHIRENKOUWEI6.91YI,JIZHONGGUORENJUNLAJICHANLIANGWEI0.63 kg/(REN·RI),RENWEIZHONGGUODADAOMEIGUOJINGJISHUIPINGSHILAJICHANLIANGJIANGCHAOGUO5YIDUN。MUQIANZHONGGUOTONGJIDELAJICHANLIANGSHIJISHIZHICHENGSHISHENGHUOLAJIQINGYUNLIANG,SHICHUQUFEIZHI、YINLIAOPINGDENG“FEIPIN”HOUDESHENGYULAJILIANG,ZHEIHEMEIGUODELAJIGAINIANCUNZAIYIDINGCHAYI。BIJIAOZHONGMEILAJICHANLIANGXIANZHUANGHOU,KEYIQINGXIDIDEDAOZHONGGUOBIXUJIAQIANGSHENGHUOLAJIDEKEXUEGUANLI、WUHAIHUANENGLIJIANSHE,YIMIANDUISUIZHEJINGJIFAZHANLAJICHANLIANGDEKUAISUZENGZHANG,JIEJUEHUANJINGWURANHELAJI“WEICHENG”WENTI。

双色球斜连走势图 TU1 ZHONGMEICHENGSHISHENGHUOLAJICHANSHENGLIANG

2、LAJICHUZHIJISHU


双色球斜连走势图    MEIGEGUOJIAHEDIQUDOUHUIGENJUZISHENQINGKUANGFAZHANLAJICHUZHIJISHU。LAJICHUZHIJISHUZHUYAOYOUHUISHOU、DUIFEI、TIANMAIHEFENSHAO,DANZHONGGUODUI“FEIPIN”HUISHOUMEIYOUGUANFANGTONGJISHUJU,ZHONGMEILAJICHUZHIQINGKUANGRUTU2。1990~2005NIAN,MEIGUOCHENGXIANCHUTIANMAIBILIJIANGDI,HUISHOUHEDUIFEIDEBILIZENGJIA,TONGSHIFENSHAOBILIJIBENBUBIAN;TONGSHIZAI2006NIANHOUJIZHONGJISHUDEYINGYONGWEICHIXIANGDUIWENDING。2003~2010NIAN,ZHONGGUOLAJICHUZHIJISHUYINGYONGCHUXIANLEJIAOMINGXIANDEBIANHUA,BIAOXIANWEIFENSHAOJISHUBILIXIANZHUZENGJIA,DUIFEIJISHUDEYINGYONGXUNSUWEISUO,TONGSHITIANMAIJISHUBILIXIAOFUJIANSHAO。2010NIANFENSHAOJISHUZAIMEIGUOLAJICHUZHIBILIZHANDAOLE11.7%,ZAIZHONGGUOLAJICHUZHIBILIWEI19.2%,DANZHONGGUOLAJIWUHAIHUALVJINWEI77.9%,RENGYOU20%DELAJICHUYUWUXUGUANLIZHUANGTAI。TONGSHIGENJUGENJU《“SHIERWU”CHENGZHENSHENGHUOLAJIWUHAIHUACHULISHESHIJIANSHEGUIHUA》,DAO2015NIAN,QUANGUOCHENGZHENSHENGHUOLAJIFENSHAOCHULISHESHINENGLIDADAOWUHAIHUACHULIZONGNENGLIDE35%YISHANG,JUCIJISUANQUANGUOJIANGXINJIANCHAOGUO210ZUO1000DUN/RICHULILIANGGUIMODELAJIFENSHAOCHANG。ZHONGGUOLAJICHUZHIJISHUYINGYONGDEFAZHANYOUZISHENGUOQINGHEJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGJUEDINGDE,YOUGUOQUDETIANMAIZHANJUEDUI,DAOXIANZAIYIJIWEILAIHENZHANGSHIQINEIYITIANMAIWEIZHU、FENSHAOJISHUKUAISUFAZHAN,ZAIDAOJIANGLAIDELAJIZONGHELIYONGDEDAOFAZHAN,XINGCHENGLAJIZONGHELIYONG、FENSHAOHETIANMAILAJITIJICHUZHIDEWENDINGJIEGOU。

双色球斜连走势图 MEIGUOJIANLILEWANSHANDELAJIFENLEIHEHUISHOUXITONG,2010NIANMEIGUODIANCHIHUISHOULVDADAOLE96.2%,FEIZHIHUISHOULVWEI71.6%,GEZHONGJINSHUDEHUISHOULVYEDADAOLE35.1%,SULIAODEHUISHOUXIANGDUIJIAODIWEI8.2%。YOUZILIAOBAODAOZHONGGUO2010NIANFEIZHIHUISHOULIANG3725WANDUN,FEIZHIHUISHOULVDADAOLE40.8%。ZHONGGUOXUYAOJIAQIANGSHENGHUOLAJIDEFENLEI、HUISHOUHETONGJIGONGZUO,TIGAOLAJIZIYUANHUALIYONGLV。DANGQIANBAOKUOBEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUHEHANGZHOUZAINEIDESHUGECHENGSHIKAISHIZHONGSHIHETUIGUANGLAJIFENLEIGONGZUO,JINXINGLESHIDIAN。LAJIFENLEISHOUJISHIGUIFANLAJIHUISHOU,TIGAOLAJIZIYUANHUALIYONGDEJICHUHEGUANJIAN。


图2 中美垃圾处置技术应用(a, 美国;b, 中国)

3、LAJIFENSHAOJISHUYINGYONGJIZHONGDIANWURANWUJIANPAI

3.1 LAJIFENSHAOJISHUYINGYONG

双色球斜连走势图 MEIGUOLAJIREZHICONGSHANGSHIJI90sNIANDAIDE10000 kj/kgSHANGSHENGDAOLE13000 kj/kg,ERZHONGGUOLAJINIANJUNREZHIZAI5000~6000 kj/kg,SUOYIMEIGUOLAJIXIANGDUIZHONGGUOJUYOUGENGDADENENGYUANHUAJIAZHIHEQIANLI。DAO2010NIANMEIGUOYUNXINGDELAJIFENSHAOCHANGGONGYOU87JIA,ZHUYAOFENBUZAIDONGBUHEXIBUZHOU,QIZHONGNIUYUEZHOUZUIDUO,DADAOLE10JIA。TONGJIDEDAODANCHANGDEPINGJUNFENSHAOLIANGWEI1075 t/d,DANTAILUPINGJUNCHULILIANGWEI418 t/d;ZHUANGJILIANGWEI2583MW,DANWEILAJIPINGJUNFADIANLIANGWEI699 kwh/t;YEYOUBUFENFENSHAOLURELIANGYONGYUCHANZHENGQIGONGRE。MEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGCHUZHIGUIMOQINGKUANGKEXIANGJIANBIAO1。DAO2010NIAN,ZHONGGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGSHULIANGWEI104JIA,ZHUYAOFENBUZAIYANHAIGESHENG,YOUQISHIZHEJIANG(22JIA)HEGUANGDONG(16JIA)ZUIDUO。ZHEIHEMEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGFENBUXIANGSI,LAJIFENSHAOCHANGZHUYAOFENBUZAIJINGJIFADA、RENKOUMIJIDIQU,ZHEISHIYOUFENSHAOJISHUZHANDISHAO、CHUZHICHENGBENXIANGDUIGAOJUEDINGDE。ZHONGGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGDANCHANGPINGJUNCHULILIANGWEI816DUN/RI,ZUIDACHULILIANGWEI1500DUN/RI。ZHONGGUOLAJIFADIANLIANGZAI250~300 kwh/tSHUIPING,YOUYUZHONGGUOLAJIREZHIJINWEIMEIGUOLAJIREZHIDEYIBANZUOYOU,SUOYILAJIREFADIANXIAOLVXIANGDANG(~20%)。MEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOFADIANCHANGYUNXINGDESANDAGONGSISHICovanta Energy、Wheelabrator TechnologiesHEVeolia ES Waste-to-Energy Inc.。ZHONGGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGYUNXINGGONGSIDOUJUYOUYIDINGDEDIYUBEIJING。MEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOLUJISHUZHUYAOSHILUPAILUJISHU,YOU80JIALAJIFENSHAOCHANGCAIYONGLELUPAILUJISHU。LUPAILUJISHUXIANGDUICHENGSHU,YOUDUOJIAJISHUTIGONGSHANG,ZHUYAOSHIMartin, Von RollHEKeppel-Seghers。TONGSHIMEIGUOYOU15JIAFENSHAOCHANGSHIYONGLELAJIYANSHENGRANLIAOZUOWEIFENSHAOLURANLIAO(DRF)。ZHONGGUOLAJIFENSHAOLUJISHUZHUYAOYOULIUHUACHUANGHELUPAILU,LIUHUACHUANGJISHUWEIGUONEIZIYOUJISHU,LUPAILUJISHUZHUYAOYINJINGUOWAIJISHUHESHEBEI。GENJUTONGJI,ZHONGGUOYUNXINGDELAJIFENSHAOCHANGZHONGCAIYONGLIUHUACHUANGJISHUDEFENSHAOFADIANCHANGYOU47ZUO,HEJICHULINENGLIWEI4.0WANDUN/RI,FADIANZHUANGJIRONGLIANGCHAOGUO1000MW;CAIYONGLUPAILUJISHUDEFENSHAOFADIANCHANGYOU49ZUO,HEJICHULINENGLIWEI4.24WANDUN/RI,FADIANZHUANGJIRONGLIANGCHAOGUO700MW;QIYUSHAOBUFENWEIREJIELUHEHUIZHUANYAOLU。LIUHUACHUANGFENSHAOLUJUYOUJIAOHAODELAJISHIYINGXING,ZAIREZHIBUZUSHIKETIANJIAFUZHURANLIAO,ZAIREZHIFUHEYAOQIUSHITINGZHISHIYONG,DIAOJIELINGHUO。ZHONGGUOLAJIFENSHAOLUYANQIJINGHUAXITONGZHUYAOCAIYONGBANGANFA+HUOXINGTANPENSHE+BUDAI,ERMEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOLUYANQIJINGHUAXITONGWEIFEIXUANZEXINGCUIHUA(SNCR)+BANGANFA+HUOXINGTANPENSHE+BUDAI,SNCRZAIMEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOLUSHANGDEYINGYONGBILIDADAOLE57.5%,BUDAIDEYINGYONGBILIWEI83.9%。

BIAO1 MEIGUOLAJIFENSHAOCHANGCHULIGUIMOQINGKUANG

DANCHANGGUIMO, t/d

双色球斜连走势图 ≤400

>400

双色球斜连走势图 ≤800

>800

双色球斜连走势图 ≤1200

>1200

≤1600

双色球斜连走势图 >1600

CHANGSHU

20

双色球斜连走势图 26

双色球斜连走势图 10

双色球斜连走势图 9

22

CHANGSHUBILI, %

23

29.9

11.5

10.3

双色球斜连走势图 25.3


ZUIXIAO

双色球斜连走势图 ZUIDA

PINGJUN

ZHONGZHI


双色球斜连走势图 DANCHANGGUIMO, t/d

双色球斜连走势图 10

3000

1075

750


BIJIAOZHONGMEILAJIFENSHAOJISHUYINGYONGDEDAO,XIANGDUIYUMEIGUOLUPAILUYIJIADUDA,ZHONGGUOGENJUGUONEILAJITEDIANXINGCHENGLELIUHUACHUANGHELUPAILUDINGLIDESHICHANGBUJU。JINHOUZHONGGUOBUJINYAOZAIFENSHAOJISHUSHANGJIAQIANGTISHENGWAI,HAIXUYAOJINXINGLAJIYUANTOUKONGZHIJITIZHIGONGZUO,BAOKUOLAJIFENLEI、GANHUA、YUCHULIJIRDFZHIBEIDENG,TIGAORULULAJIRANLIAOPINWEI。YANQIJINGHUAXITONGJIANGZAIXIANYOUBANGANFA+HUOXINGTANPENSHE+BUDAIDEJICHUSHANG,FAZHANSNCRJISCRTUOXIAOJISHU。